COMMUNICABLE DISEASES 

 
 

 

  

 
Diarrhoeal diseases
Filaria
HIV/AIDS
Leishmaniasis
Leprosy
Malaria
Statistics and Health Systems Research
Tribal Health

Tuberculosis

Viral Diseases


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 Statistics and Health Systems Research

 

  • Bayesian statistics and its application
     

  • Small sample estimation in rare diseases
     

  • Optimum utilization of secondary data 
     

  • Aging  
     

  • Life style diseases
     

  • User satisfaction of health services
     

  • Develop criteria for rating of hospitals
     

  • Evidence on effectiveness of PPP
     

  • Good Governance in health care
     

  • Evidence on effectiveness of decentralization
     

  • Evidence that  population norms(SC-3000-5000, PHC-20000/30000 etc)  for primary health care institutions are rational/appropriate
     

  • Effectiveness of Emergency Medical Services 
     

  • IT related health hazards
     

  • GIS in health care
     

  • Proxy measures of physical health
     

  • Cost effective surveillance systems
     

  • Community participation in research
     

  • Demography of unstable population
     

  •  Health Insurance
     

  • Assessing health needs of the country
     

  • Availability, acceptability and accessibility of  health interventions
     

  • Health technology assessments such as cost effectiveness of interventions
     

  • Tracking of resources for health (including for health research) 
     

  • Availability and means of financing of health interventions. 
     

  • Access to and equity in health services for vulnerable populations;
     

  • Biological, social, economic, cultural, and structural/environmental factors that influence vulnerability and disparities; 
     

  • Identification, description and analyses of health disparities at the population level; 
     

  • Intervention research that informs the development of responsive programmes, policies, and practices
     

  • Interaction/mediation of social disadvantage with other determinants of inequality, including poverty, social cohesion, gender and ethnicity, and how they influence health.
     

  • Intervention research for seeking evidence useful for policy making
     

  • Evidence base on impact of public-private partnerships on the public health services, and their role in equity in health access.
     

  • Urban health
     

  • Violence and health care in conflict situations
     

  • Health care in disaster situation
     

  •  Gender and health
     

  • Studies on the use and misuse of medical technologies

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Tuberculosis

        New generation of TB vaccines: inactivation or removal of selected genes from slow growing mycobacteria, targeted manipulation of immune responses by novel vaccine delivery system

        Drug development: using proteomic studies to identify several targets crucial for bacterial survival in-vivo

        Identify newer HLA and non-polymorphisms: using genomic and immunological techniques

        Transmission dynamics: through molecular epidemiological studies using computational graphics and micro-array studies

        Identify promoters and regulators of metabolism of mycobacteria for expansion of antigens and molecules that can be retilized as candidates vaccines and drug targets.

        Validate newer diagnostic methods

        Develop rapid and reliable diagnostics for early diagnosis and reliable diagnostics for early diagnosis and monitoring of treatment

        Develop and tests more effective and shorter duration regimens for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

        Demographic distribution of types of drug resistance using modern biological techniques

        Clinical trials with new drugs and evolving better regimens with existing chemotherapy tools.

        Development of safe and effective regimens for the management of MDRTB.

        Studies to estimate the burden of tuberculosis and the annual risk of infection in endemic communities.

        Studies to reassess the role of conventional risk factors and identify newer ones especially in the light of the HIV epidemic.

        Studies to define behavioural patterns of patients and providers in the DOTs programme.

        Exploratory studies for promoting public-private partnerships for tuberculosis control.

        Search for new antigens of M.tuberculosis capable of inducing strong T helper type 1 (Th1) response in healthy contacts of tuberculosis patients

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Leprosy

        To understand the differential gene expression of M.leprae using genomic approaches
    

        Ultrastructural study of leprosy granuloma and blood vessels using immunoelectron-microscopy and molecular methods
 

        Investigations on the relationship between hormone levels and progression of disease in women 
 

        Structural studies of cell transition in pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases

 

        Three dimensional study of mycobacterial granuloma to understand disease process: 
 

        Auto-antibodies in children leprosy cases 
 

        Nitric oxide metabolites in leprosy patients with type 2 reactions
 

        Study of anti-cytokine antibodies in leprosy 
 

        Molecular epidemiological studies using RAPD, IS 6110, AFLP and other methods 
 

        Quantitative assessment of mutations by real time PCR of genes encoding for resistance
 

        Molecular methods for drug resistance in leprosy and Study drug resistance in animal model
 

        Drug permeability and pharmacokinetics
 

        Proteomic approaches to understand mechanisms of intracellular parasitization and drug resistance etc.
 

        Immunotherapy in borderline leprosy 
 

        Electrophysiological study of peripheral nerves in leprosy and diabetes mellitus to understand prognostic markers
 

        Early prevention of deformities and different surgical intervention studies 
 

        Study on social aspects

        Develop serological techniques and DNA probes for diagnosis of leprosy at a very early stage

        Design new drug regimen to shorten treatment and for preventing relapse

        Follow up patients released from treatment to assess relapse rate

        Molecular biology and genomics of mycobacteria

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Viral Diseases

 

        Development of early warning system for JE and dengue Molecular based tools

        Host parasite interaction in dengue

        Evaluation of an insecticide impregnated paddle ovitrap for controlling dengue vector Ae. Aegypti.

        Development of information technology related forecasting models for JE and dengue

        Role of non-structural proteins in development of vaccines

        Immunoprotective and immunopathogenic mechanism in JE, and dengue virus infection in mice.

        Immunopathogenic mechanisms and pathophysilogy of dengue hemorrhagic fever in humans

        Role of rats in the transmission of HEV

        Study of immune response and cytokine patterns in patients with HCV infection

        Study on the efficacy and safety of available antiviral drugs against influenza

        Evaluation of Membrane Filters for sewage treatment and water purification plants

        Effect of ecological changes on Aedes aegypti in urban and semiurban eradication program

        Assessment of role of HCV HVR1 and host HLA status in progression

of hepatitis C

        Assessment of host/virus factors leading to fulminant hepatitis E & A

        Genomic characterization of hepatitis E and A viruses circulating in India.

        Monitoring of sewage and Water treatment plan for the presence of HAV and HEV

        Detection of dengue virus in field caught larvae in endemic regions

        Development of ELISA for the diagnosis of Adeno virus infection

        Generation of HIV-1 subtype C based DNA vaccine candidates and

        assessment of prime-boost immunization strategy in mouse model

        Development of vaccine for hepatitis E + A Virus Infection

        Development of a combined ELISA for the detection of anti HCV, anti-HIV antibodies and HbsAg

        Preparation of egg yolk antibodies against rotavirus

        To detect transmission of OPV strains

        Full genome sequence analysis of vaccine virus isolated from AFP cases and environment

        Role of enteroviruses in CNS diseases

        Development of new rapid diagnosis and strain characterization tools

        New Enterovirus types (detection and characterization)

        Isolation and genotype characterization of measles virus

        Epidemiology of measles

        Developing PCR for measles virus detection

        Genotyping of HBV infection in different parts of India to point out the genomic diversity in HBV infection and prediction of disease transmission to the genotype of the individual.

 

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HIV/AIDS 

        Natural history studies in HIV infected individuals

        Identify immunological parameters for pathogenesis, progress and therapy in infection

        Assessment of impact of intervention in mother to child transmission

        Development of new products (vaginal microbicides) and evaluation of efficacy of new as well as old products.

        Drug resistance pattern of the virus in different parts of the country.

        Initiate basic, operational and preventive studies on HIV-TB

        Initiate studies on chemoprophylaxis of TB in HIV-TB patients.

        Development of HIV-AIDS vaccine and clinical trials

        Development of combined HIV-TB vaccine

        HIV/AIDS Disease Burden and Socioeconomic impact.

        Antiretroviral therapy and various aspects related to the ART.

        Social behavioural studies.

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Diarrhoeal Diseases

        Hospital field based surveillance system for Diarrhoeal Diseases to monitor changing spectrum of enteric pathogens and to identify newer pathogens.

        Development of tools for disease surveillance

        Development of DNA probe or PCR based diagnostic system for diagnosis of E. histolytica and cryptosporodium parvum by molecular biological tools.

        Studies on Molecular Epidemiology of Enteric Pathogens - Genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains.

        Molecular characterization of multi-drug resistant shigella flexneri.

        Studies on rotavirus surveillance on disease burden.

        Studies on Rotavirus strain diversity.

        Molecular characterization of viruses viz. rotaviruses, human calcivirus, arbovirus, hepatitis virus.

        Development of effective superior oral rehydration solution.

        Impact of micronutrients in management of diarrhoea.

        Vaccine trial studies - typhoid, cholera

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Malaria

        Estimation of malaria disease burden.

        Development of sustainable vector control strategies.

        Cost effectiveness studies on various intervention measures.

        Bionomics of malaria vectors.

        Molecular characterisation and parasite biology by development of molecular markers to characterize P. vivax and P. falciparum isolates.

        Development of molecular and immunodiagnostic methods.

        Identification of members of An. dirus and an. minimus complexes using molecular diagnostic techniques.

        Studies on identification of sibling species.

        Genetic structure studies of An. culicifacies and fluviatilis using molecular markers.

        Monitoring of therapeutic efficacy of commonly used antimalarials and alternative treatment regimens for resistant parasite.

        Evaluation of rapid diagnostic kits for malaria diagnostics.

        Management of insecticide resistance.

        Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Epidemiology of malaria.

        Development of epidemic forecasting tools for malaria using environmental parameters.

        Social marketing, distribution, community acceptance and evaluation of insecticides impregnated bednets / curtains etc. for personal protection.

        Health Impact Assessment and Management Information Systems (MIS) and its efficiency.

        Development of field site for vaccine trial.

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Filaria

        Estimation of burden of disease due to lymphatic filariasis.

        Development of diagnostic/monitoring tools for filaria vectors.

        Development of intervention strategy for filariasis with emphasis on drug delivery mechanism, advocacy, monitoring and evaluation, cost effectiveness.

        Genome mapping of filaria vector species and benefit.

        Development of newer tools for diagnosis and control of filaria vectors (tools for vector control, parasite control, surveillance and morbidity management, molecular/ immunological/ genetic markers and diagnostics)

        Epidemiological studies including mapping, stratification and establishing cause and effect relationship using Geographic Information System (GIS) site specific dynamics of infection, transmission and disease and estimation of disease and economic burden.

        Studies to understand the immunological and molecular basis of host parasite interaction.

        Studies on drug susceptibility/develop appropriate drug regimen.

        Studies on dynamics of disease progression for disease management.

        Effectiveness of immuno-prophylactic at individual and community level.

        Studies on development of macrofilaricidal drugs.

        Application of decision making tools, particularly mathematical models for forecasting the trend of infection/disease and predicting the long term impact of intervention and selection of appropriate site specific strategy and duration of intervention(s) (Statistical /Mathematical models, economic evaluations, rapid assessment procedures and mapping, sampling protocols, algorithms for morbidity management, molecular epidemiology, DNA fingerprinting for exposure studies)

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Leishmaniasis

        Initiate molecular epidemiology studies to understand transmission dynamics.

        Use GIS and satellite images to develop an epidemic prediction tool.

        Diagnostic tools for early detection of visceral leishmaniasis and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).

        Evaluation of various diagnostic tools.

        Cloning and characterisation of stage specific genes from clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

        Identification of specific genes of L. donovani using genomic micro-assays.

        Study the biochemical and molecular characteristics of SAG responsive and unresponsive isolates.

        Research and development of leishmania vaccine

        Behavioural surveillance

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Tribal Health

        Estimation of disease burden in tribals.

        Study of risk factors for life style disease among tribals.

        Studies on Haemoglobinopathies in the Tribal population.

        Impact of health education and counselling on knowledge, attitude and practices of sickle cell.

        Health and morbidity profile studies in primitive tribes.

        Study on the causes of childhood mortality and morbidity and prevalence of anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders among the primitive tribes.

        Health and nutritional status of tribes with special focus on micronutrients.

        Studies on utilization of traditional system of malaria in dwindling tribes

        Studies on transmission dynamics of malaria.

        Epidemiology and etiology study of acute diarrhoea disease.

        Stratification of high malarious areas based on vector species prevalence in different eco-epidemiological systems for planning effective situation specific malaria control strategy - a multi centric study

        Studies on Characterization of P. falciparum prevalent in tribal areas

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