BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES  

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Anatomy

v     Variation in the structure of organs, their nerve; blood supply   and musculature ;

v      Developmental Anatomy and Teratological studies for studying effects of chemicals/drugs on developing fetus at gross and microscopic level;

v      Research on special stains for immunohistochemical localisation and confirmation of morphological changes using electron microscopy;

v     Neuroanatomy/Neurobiology : Application of molecular methods ,  confocal microscopy, imaging etc.;

v     Anthropometric measurements at various stages of fetal development;

v     Placental changes in normal and abnormal conditions.

v   Microscopies - Electron microscopy  (TEM & SEM), confocal microscopy and imaging; data base for prevalence of congenital malformations in various states and their categorization; developing computer programmes/multimedia in Anatomy and  Plastination of human body parts.

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Biochemistry/Immunology

 General Biochemistry

v     Role of proteases in regulating different biochemical processes;

v     Biochemical and structural biological aspects of substrate-inhibitor interactions; and

v     Lipid biochemistry pertaining to biomembranes in the areas related to phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism, lipid rafts and second messenger generation in health and disease.

v     Signal transduction pathways related to G proteins, phsopholipases, protein kinases, phosphatases and phosphorylases in health and disease.

v     Protein modification and structural changes by acetylation, palmitoylation, phosphorylation etc. in health and disease.

v     Role of transcription factors in health and disease.

v     Identification of enzymes of clinical significance for diagnosis and monitoring of disease.

v     Regulation of expression of gene expression at mRNA and protein levels in health and disease.

Research in basic biochemistry as well as molecular biology of following pathogenic organisms with special reference to cloning the genes having potential for vaccine development:

Plasmodium falciparum

v Developing epitope based immunogen against different stages of P. falciparum using inbuilt immumoadjuvants and novel delivery system

 Mycobacterium tuberculosis

 v Identification of mycobacterial proteins (secretory/cell wall/ M.tuberculosis complex specific) on the basis of their reactivity to T cells of healthy and tuberculous human population.

v Evaluation of a subunit vaccine (single/multicomponent) consisting of mycobacterial proteins best recognized by human population, in mouse in a suitable adjuvant system. 

 v To establish best animal model as well as route of infection for protection studies. 

v Development of DNA vaccine i.e. DNA encoding gene(s) for immunodominant mycobacterial protein(s) 

 v Pre-clinical and clinical studies with optimized subunit/ DNA vaccine 

Mycobacterium leprae

v Development of systems to express M. leprae genes in M.smegmatis and other mycobacterial hosts. 

v To investigate special features of M.leprae biology deduced from gene sequencing. 

v To produce improved antibiotics using rDNA techniques.

Parasites and Vectors

v     Studies on protective immunity in parasitic diseases  

v     Immunosuppression and immune deviation in parasitic diseases  

v     Studies on immunobiology of parasites  

v     Studies on the kinetics of immune response in parasitic diseases

v     Development on DNA vaccines against parasites

v     Immunoepidemiology and mathematical modeling of parasitic infections     (including concomitant parasitism) in human communities

v     Studies on immunity in vectors

v     Studies on targeting parasite enzymes for immunological intervention  

v     Identification of molecules of filarial parasites that play key role in the survival and development in the vector and as well as in the human host.  

v     Development of holistic animal models.

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Drug Development / Pharmacology

v     Establishment of a network of pre-clinical toxicology centers for carrying out animal toxicology studies using good laboratory practices (GLP) protocols.

v     Identifying special centers for conducting mutagenicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies on new molecules using good laboratory practices (GLP) protocols.

v     Identification of clinical pharmacology units to undertake pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies using good laboratory practices (GLP) protocol.

v     Good clinical trial centers following national and international good clinical practice (GCP) protocols for effective and well-monitored controlled trials.

v     An appropriate  national mechanism for monitoring adverse drug reactions and post marketing surveillance.

v     Establishing clinical trial methodology for traditional medicine research.

v     Issuing ethical guidelines for biomedical research with special emphasis on clinical trials on drugs/diagnostics/vaccines and herbal remedies.

v     Development of in vitro techniques

-         replacement of in vivo models

-         Targets for screening and basic studies on cell cultures, cell lines, isolated receptors, enzymes etc.

v     Cardiovascular Pharmacology

-         Re-perfusion injury – heart, brain, kidney

-         Thrombosis and sequelae

-         Microvascular disorders – decubitus ulcer, retinal disturbances CNS

v     Clinical Pharmacology

-         Clinical trials of traditional remedies with GCP Norms

-         Pharmacovigilance

-         Pharmacoeconomics – Drug prescribing and compliance

v     Role of Natural Products and Traditional Remedies in :

-         Degnerative and geriatric disorders like osteoporosis, arthritis, memory and learning

-         Metabolic diseases like diabetes, hyperlipidemia

-         Bioenhancers

-         Hepatoprotective

          -         Immunostimulant and adaptogen

-         Oppurtunistic and resistant infections

-         Interaction with modern drugs, concomitant use

v     Cancer Chemotherapy

-         Antimutagenic agents

-         Apoptosis and drugs modifying it

v     Drug Delivery System

-         New delivery systems for targeting alternate routes of administration, altered duration of action.

v     Pharmacogenetics of drug metabolizing enzymes

v     Toxicogenetics including gene environment interaction

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Genetics

v     Genetic epidemiology to document the prevalence and distribution of genetic disorders in  different geo-ethnic groups in the country.

v     Identify genes predisposing to complex multifactorial disorders in the Indian population including adverse drug reactions and susceptibility/ resistance to toxic substances, food substances and infections.

v     Control of thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies.

v     Primary prevention of Downs syndrome.

v     Study the genetic heterogeneity of disease patterns.

v     Investigate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of various diseases  by identification of genetic variants.

v     Identification of mutations in the Indian population.

v     Identification and characterization of new disease genes, particularly of those diseases which are unique to India e.g. Handigodu disease, calcific pancreatitis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy etc.

v     Carry out in-depth analysis of genotype phenotype correlation and study gene-gene, gene-environment interactions to understand heterogeneity of genetic disorders.

v     Study of patho-physiology of genetic diseases  which may identify new targets for drug discovery.

v     Study of genetic polymorphisms and their disease susceptibility/drug response association in various genetically identifiable groups in India .  

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Molecular Biology

v     Development of nucleic acids ( DNA /RNA/Oligo) probes for early diagnosis and molecular epidemiology (by eliciting gene polymorphism) of both hereditary and acquired diseases including a wide variety of infectious diseases.

v     Molecular cloning, sequencing and characterization of genes/genomes of pathogens and vectors that are associated with diseases most prevalent in India .

v     Early detection and molecular epidemiology of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and other diseases.

v     Development of highly specific monoclonal/polyclonal antibodies for immunodiagnosis of infectious diseases and cancers.

v     Understanding gene expression and mechanisms of different diseases particularly of cancers and genetic diseases.

v     Molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction, immune response and development of vaccines as well as immuno-therapeutics

v     Drug designing, drug delivery, chrono-pharmacology and pharmacogenetics.

v     Molecular basis of drug resistance.  

 

Development of Molecular Therapeutics

v     Control of gene expression

v     Development and standardization of in vivo somatic gene therapy and development of DNA vaccines for treatment of various diseases.

v     Development of appropriate antisense nucleotides (RNA/Oligo) for treatment of diseases with defects in DNA sequences.

v     Research and development of recombinant immuno-therapeutic vaccines and molecular therapeutics. 

v     Studies on transgenic animals, vectors and gene knock-out animals for understanding the mechanism of host resistance etc.

 

Molecular Haematology

v     Gene transfer and expression of b globin gene in haemopoietic stem cells as well as in umbilical cord stem cells so as to pave the way for successful somatic gene therapy of b thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

v     Non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis of b -thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia by DNA technology utilising foetal cells obtained from maternal circulation.

v     Introduction of antisense form of gene C-myc to proliferating smooth muscle cells to allow the regeneration of the endothelial layer.

v     Prenatal diagnosis by DNA technology of von Willebrand’s disease, platelet disorders like Glanzmann’s thrombasthaenia, Bernard-Soulier disease etc.

v     Establishment of genotype of platelets in cases of neonatal alloimmune thromobocytopaenia and their prevention by prenatal diagnosis using DNA analysis of chorionic villi.

v     Detection of genome diversity by haplotype and VNTR analysis in different tribal and caste population groups.  

 

Production of Recombinant Proteins  

v     Production of recombinant proteins such as insulin, human growth hormones, erythropoetin, interferons, interleukins, colony stimulating factors, tissue plasminogen activator, hepatitis B vaccine.

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Physiology

v     Exercise Physiology

-  Training of sports people

- Aerobic exercises in swimming pools and on land.

- Under water problem in stimulated diving in chambers

v     Pain : Biopsychosocial and cultural dimensions of pain problems and perception; chronic pain – autonomic and visceral parameters, neurophysiological basis of management strategies including CAM .

v     Ageing : Neuropsycho-electrobiological indices of brain – cognitive inflexibility / impairment, memory, attention defects etc., - the Indian setting.

v     Stress, life style and its impact on mind body interactions; linkage to conditions like hypertension IHD, Diabetes, Asthma, other stress conditions and immunological profiles; effect of yoga, meditation, pranic healing, Yoga & Mind-body relationship

v      Nutrition Physiology : Sensory – metabolic interactions in control of food intake, hedonic matrix, ontogeny of food habits and food preferences – socio economic and cultural influences, Nutrition based problems in tribal areas of India

v     Environmental Physiology : High altitutde, Pollution (noise, electro-magnetic and others) – cardio-respiratory parameters, brain indices, systemic effects. Adaptation to high temperature, Lung functions in children and Indian standards along with effects of environmental pollution and incidence of wheezing/Bronchial asthma

v     Neurobiology of addictive diseases. Alcoholism and childhood conduct disorders-use of recent technologies,

v     Sleep disorders, QEEG and Yoga

v     Chrono-biology and circadian rhythms

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